Diseases of Cornea

Some of the diseases that commonly affect the cornea are:

  1. Allergy
  2. Allergies are common to the cornea .The Symptoms include  redness, itching, tearing, burning, stinging, and watery discharge, although they are not usually severe enough to require medical attention. air.

  3. Corneal Infections.
  4. Corneal infections can be caused by the bacteria that enter via a foreign object such as a Contact lens. Inflammation of the cornea is known as keratitis. These infections can reduce visual clarity, produce corneal discharges, and perhaps erode the cornea. Corneal infections can also lead to corneal scarring, which can impair vision and may require a corneal transplant.

  5. Dry Eye.
  6. This is caused when the eye produces reduced quantity of tears or if the quality of the tears is reduced. It mainly occurs in old age especially in post menopausal women The main symptom of dry eye is usually a itching feeling as if something is in the eye. Other symptoms may include stinging or burning of the eye; a stringy discharge from the eye; and pain and redness of the eye. Sometimes people with dry eye experience heaviness of the eyelids or blurred, changing, or decreased vision, although loss of vision is uncommon.

  7. Fuchs' Dystrophy.
  8.  Fuchs' dystrophy is a slowly progressing disease that causes gradual deteoriation of the endothelial cells without any apparent reason. As more endothelial cells are lost over the years, the endothelium becomes less efficient at pumping water out of the stroma. This causes the cornea to swell and distort vision. Eventually, the epithelium also takes on water, resulting in pain and severe visual impairment.

  9. Bullous keratopathy
  10. It is a pathological condition in which small vesicles, or bullae, are formed in the cornea due to endothelial dysfunction.

  11. Corneal Dystrophies
  12. A corneal dystrophy is a condition in which one or more parts of the cornea lose their transparency and become cloudy. Corneal dystrophies affect vision in widely differing ways. Some cause severe visual impairment, while a few cause no vision problems and are discovered only during a routine eye examination. Other dystrophies may cause repeated episodes of pain without leading to permanent loss of vision.  
    Some of the most common corneal dystrophies include Fuchs' dystrophy, keratoconus, lattice dystrophy, and map-dot-fingerprint dystrophy.

  13. Keratoconus.
  14. This disorder involves  progressive thinning of the cornea. Keratoconus arises when the middle of the cornea thins and gradually bulges outward, forming a rounded cone shape. This abnormal curvature changes the cornea's refractive power, producing moderate to severe distortion (astigmatism) and blurriness (nearsightedness) of vision. Keratoconus may also cause swelling and a sight-impairing scarring of the tissue.

  15. Ocular Herpes.
  16.  Herpes of the eye, or ocular herpes, is a recurrent viral infection that is caused by the herpes simplex virus and is the most common infectious cause of corneal blindness.Ocular herpes can produce a painful sore on the eyelid or surface of the eye and cause inflammation of the cornea. Recurrent episodes of stromal keratitis can cause scarring of the cornea, which can lead to loss of vision and possibly blindness.

  17. Stevens - Johnson syndrome.
Stevens - Johnson syndrome (SJS), also called erythema multiforme major, is a disorder of the skin that can also affect the eyes. SJS is characterized by painful, blistery lesions on the skin and the mucous membranes (the thin, moist tissues that line body cavities) of the mouth, throat, genital region, and eyelids. SJS can cause serious eye problems, such as severe conjunctivitis; iritis, an inflammation inside the eye; corneal blisters and erosions; and corneal holes. In some cases, the ocular complications from SJS can be disabling and lead to severe vision loss.